地理科学进展 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (6): 52-61.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2006.06.006

• 资源与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

道路侵蚀研究进展

徐宪立1,4, 张科利2, 刘宪春3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京100085|2 .北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京100875|
    3. 水利部水土保持监测中心, 北京100053|
    4. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2006-03-01 修回日期:2006-10-01 出版日期:2006-11-25 发布日期:2006-11-25
  • 通讯作者: E-mail:kunqing@bnu.edu.cn E-mail:kunqing@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:徐宪立, ( 1978- ), 男, 山东人, 博士生, 主要从事景观生态与土壤侵蚀方面的研究.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金( 40671112) 项目资助.

A Review of Resear ch on Road Erosion

XU Xianli1,4, ZHANG Keli2, LIU Xianchun3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco- environmental Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China|
    2. School of Geography and Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China|
    3. The Monitoring Center of Soil and Water Conservation Ministry of Water Resource, Beijing 100053, China|
    4. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2006-03-01 Revised:2006-10-01 Online:2006-11-25 Published:2006-11-25

摘要:

道路建设的加速会引发道路侵蚀的加剧, 继而对生态环境产生很大的压力, 为了减轻或控 制道路侵蚀, 必须了解道路侵蚀的特征, 找出有效的防治措施。道路建设是对当地地形的改造, 开 挖以及填埋等扰动活动, 会在原来地貌上形成不同的微地形, 它们各有特点, 形成不同的侵蚀特 征。不同的道路部位侵蚀机理和侵蚀过程差别很大, 现有研究对各个部位的侵蚀强度进行了比 较, 但结果并不一致。与其他用地相比, 道路用地显著的改变了土壤的物理水文性质, 加速了产流 产沙过程。尤其对一个流域而言, 道路的线性特征使其成为汇流引流的重要途径, 直接影响着流 域的行洪泄洪, 而在这方面的研究较少。道路侵蚀预报仍然集中在经验统计模型的研究上, 由于 经验模型固有的弊端, 不能明确反映侵蚀的机理, 物理模型的研究更加迫切, 尤其结合已有的农 地侵蚀的过程模型更是加强的重点。道路侵蚀的防治措施主要包括工程措施, 生物措施以及两者 的组合, 其水保效益都比较明显, 但也往往受到当地自然环境和经济条件的限制。本文总结了国 内外道路侵蚀研究成果, 结合存在的问题指出了今后加强研究的重点, 对理解道路侵蚀机理, 开 展道路侵蚀防治具有一定的指导意义。

关键词: 道路建设, 道路侵蚀, 道路侵蚀防治, 道路侵蚀估算

Abstract:

Road construction would accelerate soil erosion, which in turn would deteriorate natural ecology. To reduce or control road erosion, we should grasp road erosion characteristics and its mechanics, and then find the effective control measures. Landform would be changed to some extent in road construction processes. Different micro- topography would be formed on the original geomorphology, which produces different erosion characteristics. Meanwhile, the erosion mechanics and processes are different among these parts of a road. The existing researches on road erosion have no agreement on the erosion intensity for the respective part of the road. Compared with other land use types, road would significantly change the physical and hydrological properties of soil surface, and furthermore accelerate runoff and soil erosion. Especially for a watershed, the linear feature of a road helps to easily converge and conduct runoff. However, few research on this aspect until present. At present, the statistical model of road erosion prediction is still predominating. Due to the limitation of the statistical model itself, it can 't reflect the erosion mechanics; so physical models should be the emphasis in the further researches. Especially, we should try our best to introduce the existing physical model on farmland. The control measures on road erosion mainly include the engineering ones, the biology ones and their combinations. All of them have different effectiveness in controlling soil loss, dependent on the local natural and economic factors. This paper reviewed the previous researches and pointed out some emphasis on road erosion in further study. It is significant for road erosion control and watershed environment protection.

Key words: road construction, road erosion, road erosion control, road erosion prediction

中图分类号: 

  • S157