地理科学进展 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 129-136.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2006.04.014

• 经济地理 • 上一篇    

北京交通拥堵的外部性及其政府解决方法初探

许光清   

  1. 中国人民大学环境学院, 北京100872
  • 收稿日期:2006-01-01 修回日期:2006-05-01 出版日期:2006-07-25 发布日期:2006-07-25
  • 作者简介:许光清(1969-), 女, 山东潍坊人, 中国人民大学环境学院讲师, 经济学博士.
  • 基金资助:

    中国人民大学基金项目( 30206107、207、307) 资助.

The Externality of Beijing's Tr affic Issues and It's Government Solutions

XU Guangqing   

  1. School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China, 100872
  • Received:2006-01-01 Revised:2006-05-01 Online:2006-07-25 Published:2006-07-25

摘要:

本文针对北京市日益严重的交通拥堵及由此引起的大气污染和安全问题, 结合环境经济 学的外部性理论, 提出应该重视汽车交通的外部性, 认为北京市的交通拥堵症结在于外部性引起 的市场失效。由于汽车交通的群体性特点, 应该使用政府方法来解决城市汽车交通的外部性, 文 章结合英国伦敦市、新加坡和日本名古屋市的交通管理措施, 建议采取管制和经济手段相结合的 方式, 从控制机动车拥有量和机动车出行率及鼓励市民采取公共交通方式出行等各个方面加强 对北京市交通的管理。

关键词: 交通, 市场失效, 外部性, 政府方法

Abstract:

By Aug. 2003, there were more than 2 million motor cars, including 1.3 million owned by privates. As population expand incomes increase, and car prices go down, more cars will be seen in streets of Beijing. Beijing's traffic congestion causes many social and natural problems, such as air pollution and deaths in traffic. We recommend using the externality theory of environmental economics to understand the externalities of car transportation. The crux of Beijing's traffic congestion is the market failure caused by its externalities. Because of the group characteristic of the car transportation, the handling of its externalities should be relied on government solutions. By looking into other cities'traffic measures, such as London of UK, Singapore and Nagoya of Japan, we recommend using the combination of force control and economic incentive to reinforce the management of Beijing's traffic, so as to control the total amount of cars, to limit too many cars to go into the center of the city in rush hours and to encourage the citizens to use the mass transportations. Limited certificate of car ownership, congestion charging, and encourgement system for using mass traffic tools might be considered to apply in Beijing.

Key words: externality, government solutions, market failure, traffic

中图分类号: 

  • F019.2