地理科学进展 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 59-69.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2006.02.007

• 经济地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

产业地理集中研究进展

贺灿飞,刘洋   

  1. 北京大学 环境学院 城市与区域规划系,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-01 修回日期:2006-02-01 出版日期:2006-03-25 发布日期:2006-03-25
  • 作者简介:贺灿飞(1972-),男,江西永新人,北京大学城市与区域规划系副教授,博士.主要从事产业、城市与区域经济研究. E-mail : hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然基金资助项目(40401015)阶段性成果.

A Literature Review on Geographical Concentration of Industries

HE Canfei, LIU Yang   

  1. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2005-12-01 Revised:2006-02-01 Online:2006-03-25 Published:2006-03-25

摘要:

相关企业的地理集中有利于降低市场风险和交易成本,有利于推动创新和市场竞争,也能够共享劳动力市场和基础设施,产业地理集中与产业和城市竞争力密切相关。90年代以来产业地理集中成为经济学和地理学的热点课题。文章综述了产业区位论、贸易理论以及集聚理论对产业地理集中的解释,并对国内外关于产业地理集中的实证研究进行了总结,集中讨论了资源投入、市场需求、企业规模、外部经济、产业联系以及区域经济一体化等对产业地理集中的影响,揭示了产业地理集中的微观机制。

关键词: 产业地理集中, 集聚经济, 贸易理论, 区位论

Abstract:

The geographical concentration of employments and establishments is pervasive. Companies and plants are not distributed uniformly in space, but rather agglomerate in some places. Both location theories and trade theories could be applied to explain the geographical concentration of industries. Classical and neoclassical location theories emphasize the role of transportation costs, labor costs, demand and locational interdependence in promoting spatial clustering of industries. Behavioralists stress the importance of uncertainties, information and knowledge. Strategic perspectives highlight the strategic interactions between related economic agents in locational decisions. Structural location theories relate industrial locations to industrial organization and industrial linkages. In the existing theoretical literature, three broad families of trade models are related to geographic concentration: the neoclassical trade models, new trade models and new economic geography models. In the neoclassical trade theories, the spatial pattern is formed through inter-industry specialization with industries settling in locations with comparative advantages. New trade models are characterized by increasing returns to scale, product differentiation and monopolistic competition. Scale economies provide regions with incentives to specialize even in the absence of differences in their technology or resoure endowments, and make firms to concentrate their production in a few locations. In the new economic geography models, the distribution of economic activities becomes entirely endoenous. Geographic concentration is driven by the interaction of transportation costs and scale economies, which creates demand and cost linkages. Empirical studies on geographical concentration of industries confirm a variety of significant variables including resource endowment, market demand, internal scale economies, external economies, industrial linkages and trade liberalization.

Key words: agglomeration economies, geographical concentration of industries, location theory, trade theory

中图分类号: 

  • K901