地理科学进展 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 8-16.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2006.02.002

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家生态特区构想及其科学基础

张百平1, 陆大道1, 马小丁2, 程选2, 马鹏3, 孙然好1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101|
    2. 国家发展与改革委员会投资研究所,北京100038|
    3. 云南省昭通市发展与改革委员会,云南657000
  • 收稿日期:2006-02-01 修回日期:2006-03-01 出版日期:2006-03-25 发布日期:2006-03-25
  • 作者简介:张百平(1963-),男,研究员,博士生导师.研究领域为山地生态与GIS应用. E-mail: zhangbp@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(40571010); 昭通市"十一五社会与经济发展总体规划"项目资助.

Conception and Scientific Foundation of State Special Eco-region

ZHANG Baiping11, LU Dadao11, MA Xiaoding22, CHENG Xuan22, MA Peng33, SUN Ranhao11   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101|
    2. Research Institute of Investment, State Development and Reform Commission, Beijing 100038|
    3. Development and Reform Commission of Zhaotong City, Yunnan 657000
  • Received:2006-02-01 Revised:2006-03-01 Online:2006-03-25 Published:2006-03-25

摘要:

本文首次提出了“国家生态特区”的概念及其科学基础。我国21世纪可持续发展面临的最严峻的挑战之一就是生态安全。但生态问题与贫困、区域发展道路和方向紧密联系,涉及因素多、复杂程度高,简单的工程性应对存在明显缺陷。我国西部存在战略重要、生态脆弱、贫困集聚的 “三位一体”地区。应给予其特殊政策,包括持续的生态补偿,变分散投资为集中投资、部门治理为综合规划,改变区域发展方向和衡量指标,实施生态战略及跨越式发展战略,走特区发展模式。在这类地区建立国家生态特区符合国家生态安全战略、能源安全战略、西部大开发战略及扶贫攻坚战略,具有比较完备的政策基础。建立国家生态特区可以实现有限资源的优化组合,建立我国生态建设的示范基地及地区环境建设与经济发展的长效机制,可以有效地破解我国生态战略区的经济与生态困局,解决生态移民难题、消除社会不稳定因素,特别是消除国家生态安全隐患,奠定国家可持续发展的生态基础。金沙江下游地区近8万km2,约1000万人口,共30个县,其中22个为国家贫困县;计划修建的四大电站装机3800万瓩,超过两个三峡电站;在生态安全、能源、扶贫方面都具有国家战略意义,可以考虑作为第一个国家生态特区。建议重新定位它的发展模式,给予相应的国家政策,使其发展既符合地区发展目标又符合国家战略目标。

关键词: 国家生态特区, 生态安全, 生态民

Abstract:

This paper outlines for the first time the concept of state special eco-region. Ecological security is one of the most severe challenges facing China's sustainable development in the 21st century. But, it is closely related with manifold factors such as poverty, regional development model and orientation, and simple ecological projects have not much effect owing to inherent shortcomings. Objectively, in West China there exist "three in one" areas with fragile ecology, underdeveloped economy, but outstanding position in national ecology or resources. They should get special policies, including sustained ecological compensation, concentrated investment instead of departmental investment, and integrated planning instead of department-based management. Regional development should be based on special region model and stepwise pattern toward ecological end. Establishment of state special eco-region in these areas accords with national strategies of ecological security, energy security, west development and poverty alleviation. This could facilitate optimizing combination of limited resources, forming ever-lasting mechanism for regional environmental construction and economic development, breaking the spiral of ecological deterioration and poverty, dissolving the sticky problem of ecological migration, getting rid of social unstable factors, undermining the hidden trouble of national ecological security, and finally, lying the ecological foundation for sustainable development of the country. The lower Jinsha river reaches, about 80,000 km2 covering administratively 30 counties (of which 22 are state-level poor counties) with an installed capacity of four planned hydropower stations more than twice that of the Three Gorges station, should be considered as the first state special eco-region.

Key words: ecologeer, ecological security, state special eco-region

中图分类号: 

  • X144