地理科学进展 ›› 2005, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 41-49.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.05.005

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

湿地生态系统观测进展与展望

姜 明1,2, 吕宪国1, 刘吉平1, 杨 青1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,吉林 长春 130012|
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100039
  • 收稿日期:2005-03-01 修回日期:2005-07-01 出版日期:2005-09-25 发布日期:2005-09-25
  • 作者简介:姜明(1971- ), 男, 在职博士。主要从事湿地生态、湿地功能评价研究。发表论文10余篇,参与编著书籍4部。E-mail:Jiangm@mail.neigae.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科学技术部中央级科研院所基础性工作专项资金项目“国家野外试验站监测规范与数据标准化”资助(2001DEA20016)

Progress and Prospect of Observation on Wetland Ecosystem

JIANG Ming1,2, LV Xianguo1, LIU Jiping1, YANG Qing1   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China|
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2005-03-01 Revised:2005-07-01 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2005-09-25

摘要:

作为地球之肾的湿地,具有重要的生态环境与社会服务功能。湿地生态系统观测是获取湿地生态系统以及环境信息的重要手段,其观测结果是对湿地生态系统的变化做出科学预测和制定合理保护措施的重要依据。湿地生态系统的观测始于16世纪对湿地的利用,至20世纪70年代得到了较大的发展,全球生态系统监测网络的建立为湿地生态系统观测提供了良好的平台。不同地区湿地观测的水平、具体内容及指标不同,北美及地中海地区湿地观测水平较高。通过对国内外湿地生态系统观测的历史、观测内容和指标进行研究,提出我国湿地生态系统观测要在观测网络的建立、指标体系完整性、先进技术和方法引用等方面进一步完善和补充。

关键词: 观测, 进展, 湿地生态系统, 展望

Abstract:

As the kidney of the earth, wetland has many functions which include reducing flood levels, moderating global climate condition, controlling runoff in urban areas, buffering shorelines erosion and so on. Because of the inning, over-grazing, irrigation, silt sediment, and wetland environment pollution, wetland area is declining, fragmentation of wetland landscape is obvious, and loss of the biodiversity is severe, so the task to protect wetlands becomes more and more important.   The state of wetland utilization and exploitation, the change of wetland structure and functions, and the extent of wetland damage will all depend on the long and effective observation data of the wetland ecosystem. Observation of wetland ecosystem is to acquire the information of wetland ecosystem and its environment elements, whose results can be utilized to predict the change of wetland ecosystem, so that accurate protection measures can be made.   Observation of Wetland ecosystem started with the utilization of wetlands from sixteen centuries to the middle period of twenty centuries in the former USSR and Northern Europe. From 1950s to now, observation of wetland ecosystem has been developed greatly; at the same time observation networks of wetland ecosystem for the world were built up, such as The Long Term Ecological Research Network (U.S.A), The Environment Change Network (Great Britain),The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network(Canada), and Chinese Ecology Research Network (China) . Wetland ecosystem observation is more sophisticated and highly developed in the northern America and mediterranean sea region.   Many field stations were built for the wetland observation of climate, water quality, wildlife, soil and social activities which occurred in the wetland region; many indicators were monitored, but the monitoring indicators are different from different types of wetland ecosystem, so indicator system should be improved according to different types of wetland ecosystem; at the same time wetland observation network should be more perfect and new techniques and means should be utilized.   In a word, wetland normalizing wetland ecosystem observation can provide basic data for wetland science research, and the level of observation reflects the extent of wetland science research; scientific observation data is the theory basis of wetland management for the policy makers, wetland managers, and local communities.

Key words: observation, progress, prospect, wetland ecosystem