地理科学进展 ›› 2005, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 56-64.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.007

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

资源短缺与中国资源节约发展方向探讨

姜 巍1,2, 张 雷1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100039
  • 收稿日期:2005-03-01 修回日期:2005-06-01 出版日期:2005-07-25 发布日期:2005-07-25
  • 作者简介:姜巍(1977-)|女|山东人|博士生|主要从事资源开发与区域发展方面的工作。 E-mail: jiangw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国土资源部信息中心“我国资源节约战略与管理机制研究”(2005-03-2005T-03)、国家自然科学基金项目(90210037)共同资助。

Resource Scarcity and China Resource Saving Direction

JIANG Wei1,2, ZHANG Lei1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographical Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China|
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039,China
  • Received:2005-03-01 Revised:2005-06-01 Online:2005-07-25 Published:2005-07-25

摘要:

随着社会经济的快速发展,资源短缺对中国经济的瓶颈作用越来越强烈。作为世界上最大的发展中国家,中国的资源环境现状面临严峻挑战。中国虽然资源总量丰富,但是人均资源量少、结构失衡,多年来以资源环境的大量投入不仅严重破坏了资源基础,更加重了环境恶化的趋势。总体来看,目前中国在资源生产和消费过程中主要存在资源利用效率低下、产品质量不过关、生产集约程度不足、生产和消费失衡以及生产与资源分布不吻合、资源管理不完善等方面的问题,要维持未来中国资源的有效供给,需要建立自然资源开发利用从宏观到微观的统一管理机制,强化机制的综合协调功能,因此我国资源节约型经济的基本模式应是:((消费节省+生产集约)×(政府干预+市场调节))×科技教育。为此,中国资源节约战略可以考虑通过发展循环经济、推进国家资源加工深度化进程、加强资源管理和提高环保意识等措施进行。

关键词: 可持续发展, 资源短缺, 资源节约

Abstract:

With the rapid economic development of China, the restriction of resource scarcity is becoming more and more apparent. As one of the biggest developing countries, China faces severe challenge from resources and environment. As a whole, the resources condition of China have following characteristics: (a) resource quantity of China is large but scarce per capita; (b) resource structure is unbalanced between different elements, water resource and forest resource and environment is in the inferior position in the world; and (c) a great deal of resource and environment input in these years has not only havocked the resource base but also aggravated the environment. Even worse, there are a lot of problems existing in the resource exploitation and consumption; For example, lower resource utility efficiency causes a great deal of resource consumption, inferior quality shortens the life span of product, insufficiency of manufacture intensifies waste abundance of resources, unbalance between production and consumption makes severe overstock, disagreement between resource distribution and production consumes lots of freight cost, bad resource management chucks away resource, etc. In order to keep safe and steady resource supply of China in future, it is important to regulate and control during all processes from resource production to consumption, so the basic model of China′s resource saving economy should be saving during resource consumption, intension during production, governmental intervention and market regulation during circulation, and science and technology input during education. Based on the points mentioned above, the way to China′s resource saving economy should be focus on following aspects:(1) Build up recycle economic society to promote sustainable development; (2) Advance national resource machining degree to increase the technology extent of product; (3) Establish resource management system to suit to socialist market economy; and (4) Boost up environmental consciousness.

Key words: resource saving, resource scarcity, sustainable development