地理科学进展 ›› 2004, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 78-85.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2004.05.009

• 城市地理与城市生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国道路网与生态系统破碎化关系统计分析

李双成, 许月卿, 周巧富, 王 磊   

  1. 北京大学环境学院资源与环境地理系 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2004-06-01 修回日期:2004-08-01 出版日期:2004-09-25 发布日期:2004-09-25
  • 作者简介:李双成(1961-),河北平山人,副教授。研究方向为地学建模与区域生态评价。 E-mail:scli@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(编号:40271106)和(编号:90202012)。

Statistical Analysis on the Relationship between Road Network and Ecosystem Fragmentation in China

LI Shuangcheng, XU Yueqing, ZHOU Qiaofu, WANG Lei   

  1. College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University;The Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2004-06-01 Revised:2004-08-01 Online:2004-09-25 Published:2004-09-25

摘要:

道路修建引起的生态系统及其生境破碎化具有一系列的生态效应,定量表达破碎化特征对于道路及其周边生态系统管理具有重要意义。本文以1∶25万中国道路网矢量数据为基础,利用GIS和FragStat软件,分析了不同级别道路网络与破碎化的关系。研究结果表明:中国道路影响生态系统面积占全国国土面积的18.37%。在各级道路中,影响面积以等外公路最大,可达到161.76×104 km2,其次是二级公路可影响5.86×104 kmsup>2,高速公路影响面积居第三位,达到4.59×104 kmsup>2,三级公路影响面积为2.27×104 kmsup>2,四级公路影响面积最小,仅有0.39×104kmsup>2。在各级道路影响各类生态系统面积中,高速公路和一级公路对于农用地的影响比例最高,均在70%以上。公路级别越低,影响农用地的比例越低,四级公路和等外公路分别影响21.62%和27.40%;对于林地和草地的影响比例则大致相反,道路级别越低影响林地和草地面积比例越大;各类道路对荒漠和水体的影响比例没有显著差异。随着公路等级降低、公路条数的增加,生态系统的破碎化程度明显增加,表现为斑块数目显著增多,平均斑块面积减小;另一方面,平均斑块分维数显著增大,这说明道路切割出的斑块形状复杂性加大。

关键词: 道路网络, 生态系统, 中国

Abstract:

Road construction has important impacts on ecosystem and landscape fragmentation and it is significant to investigate the fragmentation characteristics for management of road and its surrounding ecosystem. Based on the road network of China, the relationship between road network at different levels and ecosystem fragmentation is analyzed using GIS and FragStat software in this paper. The results show that the ecosystem areas influenced by road network account for 18.37% of the total country area. Among the areas affected by road network at different levels, the area affected by countryside road is maximal, with 161.76×104 km2; the following is the area affected by second level road network, with 5.86×104 km2; and the areas affected by freeway and the third level road network are 4.59×104 km2 and 2.27×104km2,respectively. The area affected by the fourth level road network is minimal, with 0.39×104 km2. The ratios of agricultural area affected by freeway and the first level road network are the largest, with above 70%.The lower the road network level, the less the ratio of agricultural area affected by corresponding road network. For forest and grass land, the lower the road network level, the larger the ratio of agricultural area affected by corresponding road network. While for wasteland and water area, there is no distinct difference among the areas affected by different road network. The total number of patches increases and the average patch area decreases with the decrease of road network level and the increase of amount of road network, which shows that the ecosystem fragmentation degree rises. Meanwhile, the mean patch fractal dimension increases obviously, which shows that the complexity of patch shape rises.

Key words: China, ecosystem, road network