地理科学进展 ›› 2004, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 33-42.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2004.05.005

• 土地利用变化与生态安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

资源型城市土地利用变化与湿地生态安全响应 ——以黑龙江省大庆市为例

臧淑英1, 倪宏伟1,2, 李艳红1   

  1. 1. 哈尔滨师范大学生命与环境科学学院,哈尔滨 150080;
    2. 黑龙江省自然资源研究所,哈尔滨 150040
  • 收稿日期:2004-07-01 修回日期:2004-08-01 出版日期:2004-09-25 发布日期:2004-09-25
  • 作者简介:臧淑英(1963-),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,博士,教授,主要从事景观生态学及地理信息系统应用与开发研究。E-mail:zsy6311@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40271044);黑龙江省自然科学基金资助项目(G0213);哈师大杰出青年基金项目(J0108)。

Response of Land Utilization in Resource-rich Cities to Wetland Ecology Safety: A Case Study of Daqing in Heilongjiang Province

ZANG Shuying1, NI Hongwei1,2, LI Yanhong1   

  1. 1. Life and Environment Science College of Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150080;
    2. Natural Resources Research Institute of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150040
  • Received:2004-07-01 Revised:2004-08-01 Online:2004-09-25 Published:2004-09-25

摘要:

黑龙江省大庆市作为典型的资源型城市(以石油资源、草场资源和耕地资源发展起来),是人地关系作用最强烈的区域之一,也是土地利用发生急剧变化且具有特色的区域。揭示本区域土地利用的时空变化特征和变化规律,探讨土地利用变化引发的生态安全问题,对于资源型城市生态环境改善,产业结构调整及实现资源型城市可持续发展尤为重要。为此,本研究基于大庆市1978、1988、1992、1996和2001年5个时段的MSS和TM影像,获取20a来不同时期的土地利用信息。以GIS技术为数据集成分析平台,计算湿地景观格局指数和各湿地景观类型的时空转移过程,以期从景观格局的角度定量刻画区域湿地景观过程对土地利用变化的响应和由此产生的湿地生态安全威胁。结果表明,区域内耕地不断增加,建设用地的扩大,以及湿地盐碱化和草甸化过程,是湿地减少的重要原因之一;土地利用造成的湿地景观分割、景观破碎和景观迅速减少,对生物多样性安全、水资源安全和人类健康安全等产生威胁;因而,应根据人类与自然共生原理,对不同湿地进行景观生态的分析、评价、规划和设计,逐步恢复原有的自然湿地景观,使其发挥多种湿地功能。

关键词: 生态安全, 湿地, 土地利用变化, 资源型城市

Abstract:

As a typical resource-rich city (developed on the resources of petroleum, pasture land and cultivated land), Daqing City of Heilongjiang Province is one of the regions where the relation between human and land acts the most intensively, and also is the region where the land utilization changes sharply and possesses particular characteristics. It is especially important to the environment improvement, adjustment of industry structure in resource-rich cities and realization of sustainable development of resource-rich cities to reveal the time and space change characteristics and their change laws of land utilization in this area and to discuss the safety problems caused by land utilization change. Therefore, this study is based on MSS and TM image during five periods in 1978,1988,1992,1996 and 2001, obtaining land utilization information in different periods of 20a. This study uses GIS technology as the data integration analysis platform and calculates the index of wetland landscape pattern and the process of time and space shifting of each wetland landscape type for the purpose to describe from the point of view of landscape pattern quantitively the response of wetland landscape process to the land utilization change and the threaten of wetland ecology safety herefrom. The result shows that important reasons causing the reduction of wetland include the continuous increment of cultivated land, enlargement of land for building and the process of wetland salination and wetland becoming meadow. The land utilization causes division, breaking and rapid reduction of wetland landscape, forming a threat to the safety of biology variety, water resource and human health. Thus we should carry out analysis, evaluation, planning and design of different wetland according to the principle of symbiosis of human beings and nature, and gradually recover the original natural wetland landscape in order to let it exert full wetland functions.

Key words: ecology safety, land use change, resource-rich city, wetland