地理科学进展 ›› 2004, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 13-21.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2004.01.002

• 环境治理工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

风沙危害防治的主要工程措施及其机理

韩致文1, 王 涛1, 董治宝1, 张伟民1, 王雪芹1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所沙漠与沙漠化重点实验室,兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐,830000
  • 收稿日期:2003-01-01 修回日期:2003-10-01 出版日期:2004-01-24 发布日期:2004-01-24
  • 作者简介:韩致文(1963-),男,博士、研究员。主要从事风沙地貌与风沙工程研究. E-mail: hzwen@ns.lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目“中国北方沙漠化过程及其防治研究”(G2000048705, G2000048702)、中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210093)。

Main engineering measurements and mechanism of blown sand hazard control

HAN Zhiwen1, WANG Tao1, DONG Zhibao1, ZHANG Weimin1, WANG Xueqin1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification Research, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000;
    2. Chinese Academy of Sciences Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Wulumuqi 830000
  • Received:2003-01-01 Revised:2003-10-01 Online:2004-01-24 Published:2004-01-24

摘要:

对风沙危害防治的主要工程措施及其物理机理进行了深入研究,从理论上得出格状沙障内最大风蚀深度与方格边长之间的解析关系,利用流体力学理论计算了不同草头高度h0所对应的最大间距Lmax,得出格状沙障中心沙粒的起动风速随沙障规格和深宽比h/L的增加而减小,建立了栅栏下风侧风速为来流风速的百分率与栅栏下风向距离的关系,并对不同孔隙度尼纶网栅栏的风沙阻导效应、直立植物及戈壁砾石覆盖防沙措施的粗糙特征、化学工程固沙措施等进行了广泛研究。通过对已有研究成果的综合评述,剖析了风沙工程学面临的主要问题与任务,指出与生态环境治理、资源开发及可持续发展问题紧密结合,是风沙危害防治研究发展的方向,并亟待加强与生态环境恢复—资源高效开发一体化的风沙危害防治措施的理论研究与技术示范。

关键词: 风沙危害防治, 格状沙障, 砾石覆盖, 物理学机理, 直立植物, 阻沙栅栏

Abstract:

Through deeply studying on main engineering measurements and mechanism of blown sand hazard control, the relation between the max wind erosion depth of straw board check sand break and side length of straw board check sand break is theoretically concluded. Using the fluid mechanic theory the different straw height H0 above the ground and relative max space L are computed. We conclude that sand shear velocity in check sand break decreases with the increase of different sand break types and the rate of depth and width H/L, and set up the relation between the rate of leeward wind velocity and upward wind velocity of barriers and distance of leeward of barriers. We also study the effect of blown sand blocking and transporting of different pore rate of nylon net barriers, the aero-rough features of high standing plant and Gobi gravel mulch and chemical sand fixing measure and so on. Through comprehensive review of the studied results, the main problems and tasks facing blown sand engineering are analyzed. The paper points out that close combination of eco-environment control-natural resource development and sustainable development is a way for blown sand control’s development in the future. In the meantime, the theory of study on the combination of blown sand hazard control of eco-environment recover and natural effective development,and technological examples needs to be strengthened.

Key words: block sand barriers, blown sand hazard control, check sand breaks, gravel mulch, mechanism