地理科学进展 ›› 2002, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 507-516.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.013

• 论文 • 上一篇    

地球化学示踪在现代土壤侵蚀研究中的应用

郑永春1,2, 王世杰1, 欧阳自远1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地球化学研究所环境地球化学国家重点实验室,贵州贵阳550002;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-01 修回日期:2002-07-01 出版日期:2002-09-24 发布日期:2002-09-24
  • 作者简介:郑永春(1977-),男,浙江省嵊州市人,博士生。主要研究方向为土壤侵蚀与土地退化及环境地球化学。E-mail:y1ch1zheng@163.net
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(49833002);中国科学院知识创新项目(KZCX2-105);中国科学院“西部之光”项目与国家“九五”攻关项目(96-920-04-02-12)

Using Geochemistry as a Tool Measuring Soil Erosion

ZHENG Yong chun1,2, WANG Shi jie1, OU yang Zi yuan1   

  1. 1. State key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, CAS, Guiyang 550002 China;
    2. Postgraduate Academy, CAS, Beijing 100039 China
  • Received:2002-05-01 Revised:2002-07-01 Online:2002-09-24 Published:2002-09-24

摘要: 土壤侵蚀导致土地退化、农产品产量和品质下降、水环境污染等诸多问题 ,引起各方面的广泛关注 ,而且这个问题随着持续增长的人口压力和农业生产方式深刻变革的影响而日益严重。由于目前广泛使用的高差法、遥感研究法、RUSLE、野外调查法、水土流失监测点法等土壤侵蚀研究方法存在着一些不足 ,因此 ,核素地球化学示踪法、稀土元素示踪法、土壤地球化学指标法等地球化学示踪方法应运而生 ,在土壤侵蚀研究中发挥其独特作用。在比较了各种传统的土壤侵蚀研究方法的优势和不足的基础上 ,作者认为 :1 137Cs、 2 10 Pb可用于研究 30、 40年左右平均土壤侵蚀速率 ,7Be可用于示踪季节性土壤侵蚀和一次降雨事件的土粒运移 ,并说明这些核素的示踪原理和侵蚀速率的定量依据 ;2人为施放稀土元素 ( REE)示踪法适合定量一次或多次降雨事件的侵蚀速率 ,可用于土壤侵蚀理论的研究 ,尤其适合于室内模拟实验的研究 ;3土壤磁化率法和土壤理化性质指标法研究土壤侵蚀是一种处于起步阶段的侵蚀研究方法 ,适用于土壤质量退化研究 ,但要用于土壤侵蚀研究特别是侵蚀速率的定量研究还很不成熟。

关键词: 地球化学指标, 放射性核素, 土壤侵蚀, 稀土元素

Abstract: Soil erosion results in land degradation, farming product output and quality declined, and water pollution, etc.. The problem becomes more and more serious with the changed farming fashion,tillage mode,and progressing pressure of population. Many conventional erosion research methods and techniques, such as Elevation method, Remote Sensing technique, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation method, Field Investigation technique, and Soil Loss Monitoring Spot method, have their limitations, though they are used widely today. Using geochemical tracers to measure soil erosion rates is popular and exerting particular function in erosion study. Those tracers include radionuclides, Rare Earth Element, magnetic susceptibility, and soil physics and chemistry index. This paper points out several limitations of conventional erosion research methods, and indicats that: (1) 137 Cs, 210 Pb can be used to study soil erosion rates in about 30~40 years. 7 Be can be used to trace seasonal soil particle movement and one rainfall erosion rates. The tracing theory, principle and technical path are also concluded. (2) REE can be used to measure incident erosion rates and to study erosion and deposition pattern. (3) Magnetic susceptibility and soil physics and chemistry index can be expected to use in studying soil erosion and land degradation in future. Geochemical tracing techniques have their own limitations. For example, chemical analysis of tracers in soil is expensive. Researchers are required to master essential analysis method and understand the knowledge of geochemial behavior of tracers. But these techniques are very useful supplements to traditional techniques, especially in the study of average erosion rates in several ten years and in one rainfall.

Key words: Geochemical index, Radionuclides, Rare Earth Element, Soil erosion

中图分类号: 

  • X144