1. School of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
2. The 402 Team, the Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Hunan, Changsha 410014, China
3. Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
4. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, Shijiazhuang 050021, China
5. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
Human activities, such as water storage in reservoirs and pumping for irrigation, reduce stream flows and deplete unconfined aquifer in the plain area of the Baiyangdian Lake Basin. Without recharges from rivers and groundwater, the Baiyangdian Lake faces the risk of drying up. Considering the impacts of the Baiyangdian Lake on the local environment, biodiversity, and climate, many projects of water transfer for the sustainability of the lake were implemented. However, the result are unsatisfactory due to considerable leakages in the lake. In order to preserve the lake, sustainable groundwater use should be achieved and therefore, it is necessary to study the renewal rate of unconfined groundwater. In this study groundwater was surveyed on the plain area of the Baiyangdian Lake Basin in 2009. thirty six samples from groundwater and surface water were collected for measuring the content of tritium. Tritium content in precipitation since the mid-1950s was rebuilt by comparing the results from linear interpolation, Wu's method and Lian's method. Renewal rate of groundwater in the plain area was estimated based on the tritium data and the well-mixed model. Results show that leakage of the lake slightly increased tritium content in the ambient groundwater. Generally, the renewal rate of unconfined groundwater decreased from 15.0 %/a to 4.0 %/a between the mountain area and the lake. Alluvial fans are the main recharge area with an average renewal rate of 9.8 %/a. The renewal rate dropped to 4.4 %/a in the alluvial plain. We recommend that groundwater development should be restricted in the alluvial plain to recover the renewal rate of unconfined groundwater. Although such recovery may take a long time to occur, it is believed that recharging the lake by shallow groundwater is the only way to maintain a sustainable lake.
Baiyangdian Catchment; North China Plain; groundwater; renewal rate; tritium
白洋淀流域是华北平原的典型区域,紧邻北京、石家庄和天津,地理位置十分重要。流域平原部分属于华北平原的山前倾斜平原部分,是重要的地下水补给区(Yuan et al, 2011;谭秀翠等, 2013)。流域下游的白洋淀是华北平原最大的天然水体,曾具有渔、苇、粮、航等功能,对华北地区的环境、生态和气候具有重要的影响。然而,由于流域内河流断流、地下水超采水位下降,白洋淀无法得到补给,时刻面临干淀。本文以白洋淀流域山前倾斜平原为研究区,应用放射性氚同位素研究浅层地下水的更新速率,着重指出恢复地下水的更新速率对恢复白洋淀的重要性。本文还可为该区域地下水资源的科学管理提供依据,有助于实现地下水资源的可持续利用。
图1 研究区概图和采样点分布 (以G开头的为地下水采样点,加后缀d的为深层地下水,其余为浅层地下水;以S开头的是地表水采样点)Fig.1 Map of the study area and sampling sites (G means sites of groundwater sampling, S means sites of surface water sampling. The postfix d represents deep groundwater)
图4 研究区地下水氚含量分布图Fig.4 Groundwater tritium content in the study area
白洋淀淀水氚含量约为14.6 TU。白洋淀周边浅层地下水采样点G17、G23和G24等的氚含量分别为13.8、13.4和11.7 TU,与淀水接近而高于上游冲积平原的浅层地下水。由于白洋淀水渗漏补给浅层地下水(袁瑞强等, 2012),所以在利用氚同位素分析白洋淀流域地下水系统更新能力时,需要排除白洋淀周边采样点的数据。此外,平原中部地下水氚含量存在异常值(27.7TU),远高于其他地下水水样和地表水水样。在研究区北部易水河下游,浅层地下水出现极低的氚含量值(0.5TU),是由于深层地下水通过正断层向上越流补给浅层地下水造成的(Yuan et al, 2011)。在后续分析中排除上述值。不同水体氚含量的统计结果见表1。
表1 不同水体氚含量的统计结果/TUTab.1 Statistics of tritium content in different water bodies/TU
表1 不同水体氚含量的统计结果/TUTab.1 Statistics of tritium content in different water bodies/TU
利用氚数据定量估算流域内浅层地下水的年龄与更新能力,必须首先确定研究区降水氚含量的历史变化数据(Stimson et al, 1996)。降水中的氚来自大气中水汽与氚发生的同位素交换反应(吴秉钧, 1986)。大气中的氚有两个来源：一是上层大气中氮原子受到宇宙射线里中子流的轰击而自然生成的宇宙氚;二是1952年以来形成于大气热核试验的人工氚。对降水氚的全球观测于1961年正式启动(GNIP),中国开始于20世纪80年代。目前,这部分数据可以通过IAEA网站下载。
北半球大气降水中氚的变化模式类似(La Salle et al, 2001),可根据靠近研究区的IAEA大气降水氚同位素观测站点降水氚值的历史数据,应用一定的数学方法重建大气降水氚值。一般根据Ottawa站降水实测资料用相关法外推大气降水氚历史数据。国际原子能机构建议联合采用Doney模型法和三角形外推法恢复大气降水氚浓度时间序列。国内学者通过线性插值法、吴秉钧法(翟远征,郭慧等,2013)、多元统计回归法和全球模型法(Zhang et al, 2011)等较好地实现局地降水氚历史数据重建。相比复杂的多元统计法和模型法等方法,线性插值法更适合在同一个自然地理单元内应用。
图5 保定降水氚含量的估计数据(Ottawa站数据来自IAEA网站：http://nds121.iaea.org/wiser/index.php)Fig.5 Calculated annual content of tritium in precipitation of Baoding (data of Ottawa from IAEA website: http://nds121.iaea.org/wiser/index.php)
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The 3H method and CFCs method were applied to date the Quaternary shallow groundwater in order to study the groundwater cycle and renewability evaluation of shallow groundwater in Henan Plain. It can be concluded that the fitting error was small (2 a) so that the ages calculation by the two methods can represent the shallow groundwater ages in Henan Plain. In general, the shallow groundwater was the modern recharged water which was younger than 50 a. The groundwater age was younger than 30 a in the piedmonts of Taihang Mountain, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountain and along two sides of the Yellow River on west of Kaifeng. The age increased along with the groundwater flow path. The exploration potential decreased from the piedmonts and the two sides of the Yellow River to the plain. In general, the groundwater cycle was faster in the northern groundwater system of which age was younger, followed by that in the southern groundwater system. The groundwater cycle was the slowest in central groundwater system of which age was the oldest.
1.College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun130026, China;<br />2.Institute of Water Resources and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun130026, China;<br />3.Institute of Geological Environment Monitoring of Henan Province, Zhengzhou450016, China
谭秀翠, 杨金忠, 宋雪航, 等. 2013. 华北平原地下水补给量计算分析[J]. , 24(1): 73-81. [Tan XC, Yang JZ, Song XH, et al. 2013. Estimation of groundwater recharge in North China Plain[J]. , 24(1): 73-81. ]
The issue of water shortage has become more evident in North China Plain. The groundwater is an important component of water resources in this area, so how to reasonably and accurately calculate groundwater recharge plays an important role in and protection of groundwater resources. In this paper, the bromide tracer method was used to study groundwater recharge in irrigation and non-irrigated areas which locate in Piedmont Aggraded Valley Plain and Median Plain of the North China Plain. The results showed that the average groundwater recharge is 126.10mm, and 0.1852 for average recharge coefficient. The recharge and recharge coefficient in irrigated areas are greater than non-irrigated areas. Meanwhile, the tracer migration depth, water content distribution, rainfall irrigation, groundwater level depth and other influencing factors were analyzed. Compared to the recharge coefficient adopted by other scholars who used the tracer to estimate groundwater recharge, the results of this study is reliable, and can provide reference and guidance to water resources analysis of the North China Plain.
1. State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China;<br />2. Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering Colleges, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China
Based on precipitation data from 1840 meteorological stations in China in 1960-2010, this study examines the regional differentiation of precipitation and characteristics of its change in the recent 50 years. Using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and rotated EOF (REOF) methods, precipitation in China is divided into 11 regions, which are grouped into four areas according to their geographic locations: East China area (North China, Huanghuai and Jianghuai, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and Jiangnan and South China regions), Northwest China area (Midwest Inner Mongolia, western part of the Northwest China, and eastern part of the Northwest China regions), Southwest China area (southeastern part of the Southwest China, western part of the Southwest China, and northeastern part of the Southwest China regions), and Northeast China. Compared with the results of previous studies, precipitation regions derived with the REOF method in combination with detailed long time series precipitation data are consistent with the regional differentiation of actual precipitation and the climate division of China. The analysis shows that precipitation in the East China area changed in the late 1970s, from the late 1980s to the early 1990s, and in the beginning of the 21st century respectively, featuring recurrent south-north shifts of the rain belt in both directions, which were mainly influenced by the interdecadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon and atmospheric circulation. Precipitation in the Northwest China area experienced a major change in the mid-1980s. The western part of the Northwest China area became wet compared to the dry period in the previous years, whereas the eastern part of the area became dry compared to the previous wet years. The decreasing precipitation in the eastern Northwest China area was related to the continually weakening of the East Asia summer monsoon, while the increasing precipitation in the western Northwest China area were mainly due to the anomalous high moisture transport from the Arabia Sea and the Caspian Sea. Precipitation in the Northeast China area underwent similar abrupt changes in the early 1980s and the late 1990s respectively-it changed from the previous near normal level to high in the early 1980s, and from high to low in the late 1990s. The changes were influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon on the one hand, and related to the anomalous moisture transport form the Northwest Pacific Ocean on the other. Evident changes in precipitation have been detected over each region in the Southwest China area-precipitation changes over the western and northeastern parts of this region were in opposite directions before 2000. Precipitation in the Southwest China area is not only influenced by the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau, but also affected by the East Asian monsoon and the subtropical high, which cause complicated changes in precipitation of the area.
1. National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China;<br>2. Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
严登华, 袁喆, 杨志勇, 等. 2013. 1961年以来海河流域干旱时空变化特征分析[J]. , 24(1): 34-41. [Yan DH, YuanZ, Yang ZY, et al. 2013. Spatial and temporal changes in drought since 1961 in Haihe River Basin[J]. , 24(1): 34-41. ]
Drought is considered one of the weather disasters that restrict the socioeconomic development in China. The Haihe River basin is a typical region suffering from droughts. Daily meteorological observations from 58 stations are selected for the current drought study. The data covers the period 1961-2010 and the stations are located in the basin and its surrounding areas. The accumulated relative moisture index and FSPAAM (Fuzzy and set pair analysis evaluation method) are used in the study, as they can take into account the accumulated effect of drought as well as the fuzziness boundary conditions and the distribution of objects being evaluated. The characteristics of spatial and temporal drought variations in the Haihe River basin are analyzed. Results show that ① the Haihe River basin is dominated by moderate drought and severe drought, respectively affecting 73 000 km and 77 800 km. The severe drought-affected area increases significantly over the past 50 years; ② during the period 1986-2010, there is a tendency for the expansion of severe drought-prone areas. The latter has gone up to 149 000 km2, which is 1.6 times higher than that of 1961-1985.
1. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China;<br />2. Department of Water Resources, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China;<br />3. College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China;<br />4. Department of Planning and Programming, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100053, China
A field survey is conducted on surface and groundwater samples collected from the Baiyangdian area in an effort to identify the scope and the impact of percolation of contaminated surface water on groundwater in the area, and to evaluate the groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. The pH, EC (Electric Conductivity) and ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential) values of water samples are measured, and their hydrogen and oxygen isotopic and major ion compositions are analysed. Using the linear discriminant analysis method and the RSA(Sodium Adsorption Ratio)index, the surface water leakage and its influence on groundwater are studied and discussed. Results show that the leakage from Baiyangdian Lake can lead to an increase in EC and a decrease in ORP with heavy isotopes being enriched in shallow groundwater. The concentrations of SO42- and Na+ in shallow groundwater around the Tang sewage reservoir have increased significantly. The extent of surface water leakages is sufficiently marked with δ18O values and the water table depth of shallow groundwater. The shallow groundwater is mainly recharged by Baiyangdian Lake. The groundwater quality around the Tang sewage reservoir area is affected by the percolation of reservoir water. The percolation of contaminated surface water has caused a general decline in groundwater quality in the area. The groundwater quality is not suitable for irrigation purpose in the west region of Baiyangdian Lake and the area around the Tang sewage reservoir.
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;<br>2. School of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China;<br>3. Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China;<br>4. Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo 271-8510, Japan
Human nuclear activities, especially intensive nuclear tests during the 1960s in the world, caused atmospheric tritium concentration increasing significantly, which provided convenient condition for global water cycle research, especially for tracer dating research of groundwater. However, due to the layout of monitoring sites and other reasons, most parts of the world are lack of monitoring data of tritium concentration in precipitation, which brought difficulties in determining the input function which is essential for groundwater tracer dating technique. Based on the analysis of principles and applicability of present reconstruction methods of tritium time series, the tritium time series in precipitation in Beijing during 1953—2002 was reconstructed using combined methods, including Guanbingjun method, trend surface analysis method, trigonometric interpolation method and correlation method. Furthermore, the best method and the best time series curve were elected through comparison of results of different methods.
1.College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;2.Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China
... 国内学者通过线性插值法、吴秉钧法(翟远征,郭慧等,2013)、多元统计回归法和全球模型法(Zhang et al, 2011)等较好地实现局地降水氚历史数据重建 ...
翟远征, 王金生, 滕彦国, 等. 2013. 地下水更新能力评价指标问题刍议[J]. , 24(1): 56-61. [Zhai YZ, Wang JS, Teng YG, et al. 2013. Humble opinion on assessment indices for groundwater renewability[J]. , 24(1): 56-61. ]
The renewability of groundwater has been a hot topic in the field of groundwater science and engineering in recent years. However, the definition of groundwater renewability has not been uniform, and the assessment indices are also relatively diverse, of which the groundwater renewal period, recharge rate, age and residence time are commonly used. The assessment results of groundwater renewability on the basis of those indices are usually inconsistence with each other. This is because different physical characteristics are considered in the establishment of those indices, though close relationships do exist between them. Based on a case study from Beijing, a comparison is done on the applicability of two closely related indices (renewal period and recharge rate) for assessing the groundwater renewability. The results show that: ① the different conclusions could be reached for the relative strength of groundwater renewability in Beijing's districts and counties depending on the assessment indices used; ② the conclusion with the groundwater recharge rate seems to be more stable compared to the other one; ③ the groundwater recharge rate has more important practical significance being an assessment index for groundwater renewability.
1. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;<br />2. Engineering Research Center for Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China
赵良菊, 阮云峰, 肖洪浪, 等. 2014. 氚同位素在黑河流域水循环研究中的应用[J]. , 34(5): 959-972. [Zhao LJ, Ruan YF, Xiao HL, et al. 2014. Application of radioactive tritium isotope in studying water cycle of the Heihe River Basin[J]. , 34(5): 959-972. ]
Based on the measurement of tritium concentration (T) in different water pools(133 samples)such as precipitation, river water and groundwater (deep ground water, >80m, shallow groundwater, <80m) of the Heihe River basin (37°45'~42°40'N, 96°42'~102°04'E)and the data sets from published references (235 samples) and data of GNIP of IAEA, we explored the spatial distributions of T concentration of different water pools, and discussed the recharge source, rate and age of deep and shallow groundwater of the Heihe River basin. The results showed that:(1)The T concentrations in river water of the upper, middle and lower reaches are 50.0TU, 33.3TU and 20.9TU, respectively, showing a decreasing trend. The T concentration of precipitation of upper and middle reaches revealed similar trends, indicating the river water mainly came from rainfall in upper reaches and there was exchange between river water and groundwater from the movement water flow. Especially in the region between Linze and Zhengyixia, the T concentration in river water was 31.9TU, suggesting the recharge to river occurred by the irrigation used the groundwater in Zhangye and Linze. (2)The T concentration of deep groundwater of the upper and middle reaches was above 30.0TU, and the recharge ages are less than 50a. The T concentration of deep groundwater of basin in middle reaches and lower reaches were lower than 10.0TU, suggesting that the age of groundwater beyond 50a and recharge rate was very slow. (3)The T concentrations of groundwater of upper reaches and shallow groundwater near to the river channel were above 30.0TU, indicating that the recharge ages of groundwater were less than 50a, and the renewal rate were high. The low T concentrations(lower than 10.0TU)of the shallow groundwater far from the river were found, revealing the age of shallow groundwater in these regions were recharged before 1950s with low renewal rate. Our results provide significant scientific instructions for reasonable management of the water resource in the Heihe River basin.
① Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000;<br />② State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000;<br />③ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
张光辉, 费宇红, 刘春华, 等. 2013. 华北滹滏平原地下水位下降与灌溉农业关系[J]. , 24(2): 228-234. [Zhang GH, Fei YH, Liu CH, et al. 2013. Relationship between decline of shallow groundwater levels and irrigated agriculture on Hufu Plain of North China[J]. , 24(2): 228-234. ]
Focusing onthe problems of continually declining shallow groundwater levels on the Hufu plain of North China, the variations and response mechanisms of groundwater levels, grain and vegetable planting intensity, effective irrigated areas and precipitation are studied.A large amount of observational data collected in the past 50 years is analyzed using statistical methods and the MapGIS technology.Results show that before 1980s, the magnitude of decline in groundwater levels is small in response to the increase in the grain and vegetable planting intensity.The decline would be 0.36 m and 0.43 m, respectively; should the planting intensity and the sown area of summer grain crops and vegetables increase 0.01 and 10000 hm2, respectively.However, a significant decline in groundwater levels has been observed since 1980s.The decline would be 0.69 m and 1.15 m, respectively, with the same changes in both planting intensity and sown area of summer grain crops and vegetables.Such a decline is not only the result of the increase in the grain and vegetable planting intensity, but the result of the decrease in annual precipitation on the plain.Should there be a reduction of 100 mm in annual precipitation; the groundwater exploitation for agricultural irrigation would be increased by 35.7 mm.
Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, CAGS, Shijiazhuang 050061, China
China has been frequently hit by extreme floods and droughts due to its unique geographical features and climatic conditions. The inherently low precipitation in North China makes the conflict between water supply and demand increasingly prominent in the region. Under a changing environment, the observed runoff in northern major rivers has been declining over the last few decades. On the other hand, the rapid socio-economic development in the region has resulted in a substantial increase of water consumption. These two factors have further aggravated the water supply-demand conflict. The attribution analysis of runoff variability reveals that intensive human activities have a major influence on the reduction of runoff in northern major rivers, which include the land-use change, the industrial and agricultural developments, and other socio-economic activities. Implementing the most stringent water resources management policy and enhancing the construction of water saving society would be the fundamental way out of the water shortage problem in North China.
1. State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China;<br>2. Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing 210029, China;<br>3. Hydrology Bureau of Haihe Conservancy Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Tianjin 300170, China