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PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY
 
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地理科学进展  2015, Vol. 34 Issue (10): 1316-1323    
  土地利用 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
农牧交错区农村居民点土地利用形态演变——以内蒙古自治区阿鲁科尔沁旗为例
晨光1, 2, 张凤荣1, 2*, *, 张佰林1, 2, 3
1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100193;
2. 中国农业大学土地利用与管理研究中心,北京 100193;
3. 天津工业大学管理学院,天津 300387
Change in land use form of rural settlements in the farming-pastoral transitional zone: a case study in Aluke'rqin Banner, Inner Mongolia
CHEN Guang1, 2, ZHANG Fengrong1, 2, *, ZHANG Bailin1, 2, 3
1. School of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;
2. Research Center of Land Use and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;
3. School of Management, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
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摘要 以农牧交错区的阿鲁科尔沁旗为例,选取7个典型村,运用参与式农村评估(PRA)、GIS与遥感技术相结合的方法,探讨农牧交错区农村居民点土地利用形态特征及其与农牧户生计的关系。结果表明:①半农半牧型农村居民点由纯牧型农村居民点演变而来。人口增加导致人地矛盾突出和草原开垦耕种,农牧户生计策略转为畜牧业和种植业结合,农村居民点向半农半牧型转变;②半农半牧型农村居民点内部用地类型逐渐多样化。从改革开放前居民点内部以农村宅基地占主导,到改革开放后居民点内部公共设施用地、商服用地、工矿仓储用地迅速扩大;③由于农牧户生计活动的多样化和非农化,农村宅基地内部不但包括居住用地(住房),还包括生产性用地和生产辅助性用地(如牲畜的棚圈、菜园和粮草仓库等)。研究认为,半农半牧型农村居民点人均居民点用地和户均宅基地都远大于国家规定的用地标准,是与半农半牧的生产方式和生计需求紧密相关的。
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关键词 农牧交错区生计农村居民点参与式农村评估土地利用形态演变内蒙古阿鲁科尔沁旗    
Abstract:Land use form of rural settlements transformed profoundly in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. By selecting seven rural settlements of different geomorphic types in the Aluke'rqin Banner located in the farming-pastoral transitional zone in Inner Mongolia and examining land use change through a survey, we discuss the relationship between morphological features of the rural settlements and farmers’ livelihood. Participatory rural appraisal method and geographic information system and remote sensing techniques were employed in the survey and analysis. The results show that: (1) Morphological features of rural settlements were closely related to livelihood of rural households, especially with regard to the quantity and quality of cultivated land and grassland and livelihood activities. Along with the increase of population, conversion of grassland to cultivated land, and diversification of rural household livelihood activities, rural pastoral settlements transformed into agro-pastoral settlements. (2) Land use types of agro-pastoral settlements were gradually diversified through time. Before the Reform and Opening-up of China in 1978, agricultural production was the dominant livelihood activity of rural households. Homestead was the primary land use type of rural settlements. After the Reform and Opening-up, however, livelihood activities of rural households gradually diversified and became increasingly non-agricultural. Commercial land, industrial warehousing land, and land for public service provision expanded rapidly in the rural settlements. (3) Homestead takes a significant share in agro-pastoral settlements. Cropping and animal husbandry are important productive activities for rural households. Corresponding to the livelihood demands of rural households,within the settlements homesteads are divided into production and ancillary production lands including colony house, vegetable garden, and warehouse in rural households. Both per capital construction land and homestead area in the case study settlements are larger than the national standard, which indicates an adaptive land use in response to the livelihood demands of the agro-pastoral resettlements. Therefore, the authors recommend that the governments should take concrete measures in the process of rural residential land consolidation that take into consideration the livelihood demands of rural households in this particular area.
Key wordsfarming-pastoral transitional zone    livelihood    rural settlement    participatory rural appraisal (PRA)    change in land use form    Aluke'rqin Banner of Inner Mongolia
     出版日期: 2015-10-29
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41271111)
通讯作者: 张凤荣(1957-),男,河北沧州人,博士,博导,教授,研究方向为土地规划与评价、土地可持续利用,E-mail: frzhang@cau.edu.cn。   
引用本文:   
晨光, 张凤荣, 张佰林. 农牧交错区农村居民点土地利用形态演变——以内蒙古自治区阿鲁科尔沁旗为例[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(10): 1316-1323.
CHEN Guang, ZHANG Fengrong, ZHANG Bailin. Change in land use form of rural settlements in the farming-pastoral transitional zone: a case study in Aluke'rqin Banner, Inner Mongolia. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2015, 34(10): 1316-1323.
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