地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (8): 1028-1036.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.010

• 区域与产业布局 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国新农村建设的制约因素及国际经验借鉴

胡智超1,2, 龙花楼1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2010-10-01 修回日期:2011-02-01 出版日期:2011-08-25 发布日期:2011-09-23
  • 通讯作者: 龙花楼(1971-),男,湖南醴陵人,研究员,博士生导师。主要从事土地利用与乡村发展研究。E-mail: longhl@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:longhl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:胡智超(1987-),男,江西南昌人,硕士生,研究方向为土地利用与乡村发展。E-mail: huzc.09s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-QN304,KZCX2-EW-304);国家自然科学基金项目(40771014,40635029)。

The Constraining Factors of Building New Countryside in China and Corresponding International Experiences

HU Zhichao1,2, LONG Hualou1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-10-01 Revised:2011-02-01 Online:2011-08-25 Published:2011-09-23

摘要: 本文分析了中国新农村建设存在的问题:①农村土地空心化和人口过疏化现象不断加剧,耕地资源浪费严重;②农村发展资金短缺,农村金融体系建设滞后;③农村组织建设不健全;④农村基本公共服务水平落后,各类乡村公共物品供给缺乏;⑤农村建设决策体系不完善,缺乏规划引导;⑥新农村建设过程中农民主体性不强,公众参与程度较低。结合问题分析,总结得出中国新农村建设存在3 个方面的制约因素,即保障力短缺、参与力短缺和服务力短缺。随后,针对各制约因素在国际典型地区农村建设中的经验和教训进行了梳理,就德国、比利时、以色列、荷兰、法国、匈牙利、英国、美国、日本、韩国、澳大利亚和意大利等国在土地资源供给、人才资源供给、农业产业化、农民合作组织构建及农村公共物品供给等方面的具体做法进行了总结和分析。通过综合分析世界各国的农村建设经验和教训,从政府、社会机构和农民个人3 个层面对中国今后如何顺利推进新农村建设提出相应对策建议。

关键词: 国际经验, 新农村建设, 制约因素, 中国

Abstract: The existing problems in the process of implementing the building new countryside policy in China were concluded as follows: (1) the rural hollowing phenomenon is widespread; (2) shortage of funds for rural development is universal and the construction of rural financial system is lagged behind; (3) the development of rural organization is inadequate; (4) the supply of basic public-service and public-goods cannot meet the basic demands in the rural areas; (5) the decision-making system of rural construction is not perfect; and (6) the participating consciousness of farmers is still at a low level. There are some constraining factors in three aspects, i.e., low serving capacity, low safeguarding ability and low public participating level, which hinder the smoothly implementing of building new countryside in China. By analyzing the international experiences of Germany, Belgium, Israel, Netherlands, France, Hungary, England, America, Japan, Korea, Australia and Italy concerning these constraining factors, e.g. land resources supply, talent availability, agricultural industrialization, farmers cooperative organization construction and rural public-goods supply, some policy implications for carrying out new countryside construction in China were obtained in the three aspects of governments, social organization and farmers, respectively.

Key words: building new countryside, China, constraining factor, international experiences