地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 777-787.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.009

• 经济地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

1998-2009 年珠江三角洲制造业空间转移特征及其机制

李燕1, 贺灿飞2,3   

  1. 1. 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院,深圳 518055;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871;
    3. 北京大学—林肯研究院城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2012-09-01 修回日期:2013-02-01 出版日期:2013-05-25 发布日期:2013-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 贺灿飞(1972-),男,博士,教授,主要从事产业与区域经济研究.E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn E-mail:hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李燕(1988-),女,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为经济地理、产业和区域经济等.E-mail: liyan.chimera@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271130);国家社会科学基金重大项目(10zd&022).

Characteristics and mechanism of manufacturing industry shift in the Pearl River Delta during 1998-2009

LI Yan1, HE Canfei2,3   

  1. 1. Urban Planning and Design Institute, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China;
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    3. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2012-09-01 Revised:2013-02-01 Online:2013-05-25 Published:2013-05-25

摘要: 1998 年以来,随着珠江三角洲经济发展,空间不足、劳动力成本和土地价格上升等问题逐渐凸显,对珠三角制造业的发展带来巨大的冲击.制造业空间转移成为珠三角面临的重大问题.本文采用企业数据和定量研究方法系统研究珠三角内部制造业空间转移的产业及空间特征,研究发现:1998-2009 年珠三角制造业整体呈现先分散后集聚的“U”型发展趋势,但集聚水平普遍偏低,且不同类型的产业集聚特征差异显著.珠三角制造业地区专业化与产业集聚的变化趋势十分吻合;地区间结构差异缓慢提升.基于产业—区域交互模型对产业转移机制的实证结果表明:珠三角制造业呈现出向交通成本低、工资水平低、环境管制宽松、土地成本较低地区转移的趋势;地区制造业同构推动珠三角制造业空间转移;珠三角制造业呈现出显著的集聚规模经济,产业向运输成本较低的地区转移,前后向联系紧密的产业向市场潜力大的城市转移的趋势;当考虑产业异质性和空间异质性时,不同要素密集度的产业转移方向不明确.

关键词: 集聚, 空间转移, 制造业, 珠江三角洲, 专业化

Abstract: As the forefront of China's reform and opening up, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has become one of key research areas. Recently, the PRD experienced manufacturing relocation due to severe land and labor shortages as well as rising rents. Hence, issues of manufacturing industry shift in the PRD have increasingly become an important policy and academic focus. This paper intends to capture the characteristics of manufacturing industry shift from both industrial and regional perspectives, by using a micro firm-level census data. In general, industry agglomeration showed a U-shape tendency at two-digit industry level during 1998-2009. However, there were huge disparities in agglomeration level among different industries: resource-intensive industries have the highest level of agglomeration; the agglomeration level of technology and capital-intensive industries is lower than the average value of manufacturing industry in the PRD. At the regional scale, the disparity of regional specialization increased gradually along with the regional integration. The functional division of "Guangzhou-Foshan- Zhaoqing", "Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen" and "Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou" group is becoming clear. To explore the mechanism of manufacturing industry shift in the PRD, we applied Industry-Region interaction model to test the proposed hypothesis stated in comparative advantage theory and new economic geography theory. It was found that: (1) manufacturing industry in the PRD has shifted to regions with low transportation costs, low labor wages and land rents, or loose environmental regulations; (2) similar industrial structure in the PRD drives manufacturing shift; (3) industries with scale economies tend to move to regions with low transportation costs, and industries with close upstream and downstream linkage tend to move to regions with large market potential; (4) considering both industry and region heterogeneity, different industries have different shift direction, which means, besides comparative advantages, industry and region characteristics both significantly affect manufacturing industry shift. In the post-crisis era, deepening the understanding of manufacturing industry shift is beneficial to policy-making to drive the continued growth of the PRD economies.

Key words: agglomeration, manufacturing industry, regional specialization, spatial shift, the Pearl River Delta